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超濾膜知識分享:什么是超濾膜
發布時間:2020-05-25 16:47
瀏覽次數:
    膜技術作為一種新型實用技術,以其無相變且低能耗、高效節能且無污染的特點,在國內外各領域都得到了廣泛的應用。超濾膜技術是從 20世紀 90 年代才開始了廣泛應用,大多為中空纖維式,主要材料有聚砜、聚醚砜和聚偏氟乙烯、聚四氟乙烯等高分子材料。利用超濾膜技術能夠有效地實現對溶液的凈化、分離以及濃縮。目前,比較著名的超濾膜廠家主要有濱特爾,特里高,陶氏,坎普爾,諾瑞特等。國產品牌主要有海南立升,招金膜天,煙臺金正等。
 
    一般認為超濾膜技術的截留機理是篩分作用,不過有時膜的化學性質也會發揮一定的截留作用。超濾膜技術主要是以膜兩側的壓力差作為基本動力,以超濾膜作為過濾介質,在壓力作用下,水流過膜表面時只允許水和其他低分子量的溶質通過,從而實現對溶液的凈化、分離以及濃縮。和反滲透膜相比,超濾膜的操作壓力較低,無論正壓還是負壓,一般跨膜壓差都小于1bar。
越濾膜的過濾原理
    自20世紀末期以來,隨著水環境污染加劇以及水質檢測技術的提升,大量的水質問題出現在了人們面前,比較典型的病毒問題、藻類污染加劇、水蚤和紅蟲問題以及水的生物穩定性問題等。在此背景之下,我國的《生活飲用水衛生標準》中的檢測指標也在不斷增加,第一和第二代飲用水技術,也就是常規的處理和臭氧—活性炭深度處理已經不能滿足相關的標準,因此便引入了超濾膜技術,即第三代飲用水技術。
 
    在工業水處理中,超濾通常作為反滲透和納濾膜的預處理單元而存在,構成了我們通常說的“雙膜法”工藝,超濾可以去除懸浮物,病毒,大分子有機物。超濾膜材料以及工藝的進步拓展了超濾膜的應用范圍,如垃圾滲濾液,焦化廢水,印染廢水等高污染水質。在以上領域,超濾膜使用中遇到的難題通常是清洗維護頻率變高,難度變大,造成換膜周期變短,使用成本增高。

 

    相關內容………專業分享:不同膜的不同清洗方法
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