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膜清洗淡化膜的納米尺度均勻性
發布時間:2021-02-26 07:08
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1.反滲透(RO)淡化膜使用在微孔載體上形成的聚酰胺選擇性層將水分子與鹽分離。過去表征聚酰胺膜結構的努力受到選擇性層內部可變性的限制,現在,利用顯微鏡和建模的新功能。

 
2.使用一種特殊類型的掃描透射電子顯微鏡以及詳細的計算模型,研究人員能夠生成三維空間信息,這些信息揭示了聚合物在納米級中(和未濃縮)在膜內的位置。通過構建這些RO膜的納米級聚酰胺密度圖,研究人員獲得了關于如何運輸水的密度與膜厚度之間關系的寶貴見解。
 
3.通過分析,研究團隊比較了在不同工藝條件下生產的反滲透膜,得出的結論是,對脫鹽膜進行“納米級聚酰胺不均勻性的系統控制”是在不犧牲鹽選擇性的前提下最大化水滲透性的關鍵。盡管常規模型表明,越厚的膜,水的通過量就越少,但只有在膜的厚度和密度均勻的情況下,情況才會如此。根據研究發現,如果膜較不致密,但更均勻,則較厚的膜可能會改善水的輸送。
 
4.透射電子顯微鏡(TEM)無法定量地將PA的微觀結構與脫鹽性能聯系起來。當使用高角度環形暗場(HAADF)探測器在掃描TEM (STEM)模式下成像時,對于單組分系統,像素強度直接與采樣質量有關。進一步說,對于單獨的PA薄膜,HAADF-STEM圖像的像素強度是樣品厚度、密度和像素大小的函數。為了在電子顯微鏡中分離PA的厚度和密度,需要對納米級PA的形貌進行三維重建。我們通過HAADF-STEM層析成像實現了創建描述納米尺度表面和內部形態的3D模型。三維模型的定量分析表明,PA的孔隙率和表面積與同類工業反滲透膜的分析結果一致。
 
 

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