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如何減少水處理系統中的膜污染
發布時間:2021-03-18 08:03
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膜結垢和進料流變量

問題:

膜過濾系統從進料流中除去污染物固體,從而產生處理后的流(濾液)和廢物流(截留液)。理想情況下,可以在正常清潔周期中將殘留的污染物與滯留物流一起沖洗掉,或者將其從膜單元中清除。然而,在某些條件下,整體物流中的成分可能會從溶液中沉淀出來,結晶,吸附到膜上,或者以其他方式干擾透過過濾器單元的滲透液的流動。

可能的解決方法:

取決于手頭的工藝,可以通過進行調整以穩定進料流來減少膜結垢。諸如pH,溫度和/或進料流中溶解或懸浮的固體的濃度的變量對進料流中的組分的穩定性和反應性具有顯著影響。具體來說,這可以幫助解決:

· 沉淀和結垢:優化進料流的pH,溫度和濃度可以幫助防止鹽沉淀,這些鹽會在膜上形成水垢沉積物。

· 蛋白質變性:對于蛋白質含量很高的物流,尤其是乳制品生產中使用的物流,調節溫度和/或pH值有助于防止蛋白質變性和相關的結垢問題。

· 生物污染:在溫暖,低流量的環境下,往往會引起微生物,植物,藻類和其他生物污染物的生長,這些污染物可在膜元件上形成生物膜。在某些情況下,調節進料流的溫度,流速或pH值可以減緩此類生物污染物的生長并減少生物積垢。

膜結垢和過程變量

問題:

過程變量包括構成膜過濾單元內環境的所有那些特征,例如控制進料,濾液和截留物流進出該單元的運動的壓力,速度和溫度。通量,即液體通過膜的流速,是衡量膜過濾單元性能的重要指標。太低,污垢會積聚在膜上。太高,膜可能會因壓力過大而失效。

膜過濾系統中應用于進料流的壓力通常與通量有直接關系:隨著壓力的增加,通量也隨之增加。然而,這通常由于稱為濃差極化的現象而變得復雜,其中進料流的緩慢或非滲透組分沿膜的表面聚集。結果,液體和可滲透組分不能到達膜,導致通量下降,并增加了膜結垢的風險。

可能的解決方法:

在尋找減少膜污染的方法時,重要的是要檢查系統是否在制造商的溫度,壓力和其他條件下運行。除此之外,還有一些變量可以調整以最小化膜污染。這些包括:

· 跨膜壓力:跨膜壓力增加會導致通量增加,但只能達到一定的閾值。如果系統壓力過高,則可能通過在膜上造成過多的污垢沉積或剪切而削弱膜的滲透性,從而加劇結垢。

· }濃差極化:通量下降可能是濃差極化的征兆。如果是這種情況,則可以通過添加空氣注入或物理振動單元在膜的表面引入湍流,這將是有益的。其他選擇包括增加清洗或反沖洗周期的頻率以限制間斷濃度梯度的形成。

· 錯流速度:對于錯流型過濾單元,提高進料流在該單元中循環的速度(稱為錯流速度)可以增加滲透通量,并充分攪動污垢以防止它們沉積在上過濾器。膜表面。

 

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