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如何避免膜結垢?
發布時間:2021-01-25 14:34
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膜結垢有時是可逆的,但并非總是如此。這就是為什么最好首先采取預防措施來避免或減少膜污染的原因。下面,我們概述了一些避免膜污染的常見預防措施。

預定清潔

系統的清潔方案有助于防止污垢積聚在膜上。清潔周期應每月一次或以其他定期間隔進行安排,以提供最大的收益。維護策略可能會有所不同,具體取決于膜過濾系統的設計和所涉及污染物的類型,并且可采用一種或多種清潔方法,例如:

機械清潔涉及使用物理力來清除膜上的污染物并將其沖洗出系統。典型的方法包括振動以及向后或向前沖洗,在這種情況下,水或清潔溶液以比正常使用周期中更快的速度或更高的壓力流過設備,從而導致湍流,從而將污垢從膜中清除。在稱為空氣搜尋的相關過程中,將空氣添加到反洗/正向沖洗溶液中,以進一步增加湍流。

化學清潔包括使用清潔劑,苛性堿,酸,防垢劑或分散劑,以從膜表面上松散并去除污垢。根據存在的污染物的類型選擇清潔化學品,同時還要考慮膜材料,以確保所使用的化學品不會損壞它。

預處理

RO / NF膜的孔比MF / UF膜的孔小,因此,它們更可能需要某種形式的預處理以避免膜結垢或其他問題。具有高濃度污染物的流也可能需要在膜過濾單元之前進行預處理,以最大程度地減少膜污染的風險。如果存在膠體顆粒,則預處理選項可以包括凝結,以及重力沉降(沉降),絮凝和介質過濾以去除較大或凝結的顆粒。其他類型的預處理可以包括化學pH調節和離子交換,以防止污垢吸附或沉積在膜上。

系統設計

良好的規劃和設計可以最好地防止膜污染。在膜過濾系統的正常系統功能中有許多變量,更換膜或安裝新系統時應考慮每個變量。這些包括:

膜材料:濾膜可以由多種合成聚合物,陶瓷和金屬材料制成。膜材料的特性(例如其表面離子電荷,疏水性和pH容差范圍)決定了膜是否對某些類型的結垢具有抵抗力,以及其承受工藝條件和必要的維護方案的程度如何。

膜孔徑:孔徑是確保膜過濾單元有效去除目標污染物的關鍵因素。此外,根據其他因素(例如進水水質,溫度和鹽濃度)優化滲透通量,選擇合適的膜孔徑可以幫助避免結垢。

操作條件:在一定范圍的溫度,pH,跨膜壓力和流速下,膜污染會加劇。精心設計的系統將平衡這些變量,以確保污垢不會積聚在膜表面上。

由于這些因素的復雜性,通常最好與水處理專家聯系,以全面評估過程需求和條件。專業人士可以進行可處理性研究,膜尸檢和中試測試,以確定可以最小化膜污染的理想分離解決方案。

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